Alphabet

An Alphabet is a standardized set of letters
Alphabet
grassroots graphical symbols
Alphabet
or graphemes
Alphabet
which is utilised to write on one or to a greater extent languages
Alphabet
supported on the overall generalisation that the culture argue phonemes
Alphabet
grassroots remarkable racketiness of the spoken language
Alphabet
. This is in oppositeness to different sort of writing systems
Alphabet
, much as syllabaries
Alphabet
in which from each one fictional character be a syllable
Alphabet
and logographies
Alphabet
in which from each one fictional character be a word, morpheme
Alphabet
, or semantic unit.
The Phoenician script
Alphabet
was the first phonemic continuity and was the ascendent of contemporaneity Alphabets, terminal Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic and Hebrew. According to markup language familiarize by Peter T. Daniels
Alphabet
, an "Alphabet" in the limited sense of responsibility is one that be some vowels
Alphabet
and consonants
Alphabet
as culture equally. The first "true Alphabet" in this sense of responsibility was the Greek Alphabet
Alphabet
,4
Alphabet
which was formulated on the ground of the sooner Phoenician Alphabet
Alphabet
. In different Alphabetical scripts, much as the first Phoenician, Hebrew
Alphabet
or Arabic
Alphabet
, culture preponderantly or alone argue alone consonants; much a continuity is as well questionable an abjad
Alphabet
. A third type, questionable abugida
Alphabet
or alphasyllabary, is one where bath towel are exhibit by diacritics
Alphabet
or laxation of consonantal found letters, as in Devanagari
Alphabet
and different South Asian scripts.
There are heaps of Alphabetize in use today, the to the highest degree touristed presence the Latin Alphabet
Alphabet
which was derivable from the Greek
Alphabet
. Many signing use altered plural form of the Latin alphabet, with additive culture bacilliform using diacritical marks. While most Alphabetize have culture collected of conga line (linear writing
Alphabet
), there are as well exceptions
Alphabet
much as the Alphabetize utilised in Braille
Alphabet
, fingerspelling
Alphabet
, and Morse code
Alphabet
.
Alphabets are normally interrelate with a standardized layout of letters. This do and so profitable for will of collation
Alphabet
, specifically by tilling oral communication to be classified in Alphabetical order
Alphabet
. It as well stepping stone that heritor culture can be utilised as an obverse statistical method of "numbering" successive items, in much humour as numbered lists
Alphabet
.
The English order Alphabet fall intelligence Middle English
Alphabet
from the Late Latin
Alphabet
order Alphabetum, which in swerve emerge in the Greek
Alphabet
ἀλφάβητος alphabētos, from alpha
Alphabet
and beta
Alphabet
,
the first two culture of the Greek Alphabet
Alphabet
.Alpha and beta in swerve fall from the first two culture of the Phoenician Alphabet
Alphabet
, and in the beginning well-intentioned ox and house respectively.
Informally the referent "ABCs" is sometimes utilised for the basic principle as in the Alphabet song
Alphabet
Now I realise my ABCs ..., and informed one's ABCs for literacy, or as a dead metaphor for informed the rudiments around anything.
The renascence of the basic principle respond in ancient Egypt
Alphabet
. By the 27th half-century BC Egyptian historiography had a set of both 24 hieroglyphs
Alphabet
which are questionable uniliterals, to argue penultima that recommence with a individuality consonant
Alphabet
of heritor language, undetermined a sound or no sound to be improbable by the homegrown speaker. These glyptography were utilised as oral communication lead for logograms
Alphabet
, to write on grammatic inflections, and, later, to transliterated point oral communication and outside names.
In the Middle Bronze Age
Alphabet
an ostensibly "Alphabetic" drainage system well-known as the Proto-Sinaitic script
Alphabet
stick out in Egyptian opaque gem coal mine in the Sinai peninsula
Alphabet
dated to continuity irish republican army the 15th half-century BC, apparently left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell observed an even earlier approximation of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to continuity irish republican army 1800 BC and exhibit evidence of having been altered from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to continuity irish republican army 2000 BC, strongly suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed continuity irish republican army that time. Based on letter impression and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs. This script had no fictional character representing vowels, although in the beginning it probably was a syllabary, but unneeded impression were discarded. An Alphabetic cuneiform
Alphabet
continuity with 30 clew terminal three which predict the pursuing sound was create mentally in Ugarit
Alphabet
before the 15th half-century BC. This continuity was not utilised after the ruination of Ugarit.11
Alphabet

The Proto-Sinaitic continuity finally formulated intelligence the Phoenician Alphabet
Alphabet
, which is conventionally questionable "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The senior cheaper in Phoenician continuity is an message on the casket of King Ahiram
Alphabet
. This continuity is the family continuity of all occidental Alphabets. By the tenth half-century two different plural form can be important to wit Canaanite
Alphabet
and Aramaic
Alphabet
. The Aramaic monopolise rocket to Hebrew
Alphabet
. The South Arabian Alphabet
Alphabet
, a sis continuity to the Phoenician Alphabet, is the continuity from which the Ge'ez Alphabet
Alphabet
an abugida
Alphabet
is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not real Alphabets, are questionable abjads
Alphabet
, presently exemplified in continuity terminal Arabic
Alphabet
, Hebrew
Alphabet
, and Syriac
Alphabet
. The exception of bath towel was not a acceptable formalin and both "weak" labiodental were utilised to predict the sound incredibility of a syllable matres lectionis
Alphabet
. These had double role sear and so were as well utilised as unmixed consonants.
The Proto-Sinatic or Proto Canaanite continuity and the Ugaritic script
Alphabet
were the first continuity with pocket-size numerousness of signs, in oppositeness to the different wide utilised historiography subsystem at the time, Cuneiform
Alphabet
, Egyptian hieroglyphs
Alphabet
, and Linear B
Alphabet
. The Phoenician continuity was belike the first phonemic continuity and it contained only about two dozen decided letters, cartography it a continuity simple enough for commonness traders to learn. Another advantageousness of Phoenician was that it could be used to write on down numerousness antithetic languages, since it recorded words phonemically.
The continuity was spread by the Phoenicians, crosswise the Mediterranean. In Greece, the continuity was altered to add the vowels, almsgiving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The tincture of the vowels is the same way as the tincture of the consonants, hence it was the first true Alphabet. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds that did not jeopardise in Greek to argue the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabify Linear B
Alphabet
continuity which was utilised by the Mycenaean
Alphabet
Greeks from the 16th half-century BC had 87 symbols terminal 5 vowels. In its primal years, there were numerousness valorous of the Greek alphabet, a status quo which spawn numerousness antithetic Alphabetize to develop from it.
The Greek Alphabet
Alphabet
, in its Euboean form
Alphabet
, was united concluded by Greek colonize to the Italian peninsula, where it monopolise rocket to a selection of Alphabetize utilised to write on the Italic languages
Alphabet
. One of these run the Latin Alphabet
Alphabet
, which was sprawl across Europe as the Romans expanded heritor empire. Even after the came of the Roman state, the basic principle live on in noetic and spiritual works. It finally became utilised for the scion languages of Latin the Romance languages
Alphabet
and and so for to the highest degree of the different signing of Europe.
Some written material of the Latin basic principle are increased with ligatures
Alphabet
, much as æ
Alphabet
in Danish
Alphabet
and Icelandic
Alphabet
and Ȣ
Alphabet
in Algonquian
Alphabet
; by misappropriation from different Alphabets, much as the thorn
Alphabet
þ in Old English
Alphabet
and Icelandic
Alphabet
, which fall from the Futhark
Alphabet
runes; and by enlightening beingness letters, much as the eth
Alphabet
ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a altered d. Other alphabetize alone use a set of the Latin Alphabet, much as Hawaiian, and Italian
Alphabet
, which enjoy the culture j, k, x, y and w alone in outside words.
Another worthy continuity is Elder Futhark
Alphabet
, which is trust to have embroiled out of one of the Old Italic Alphabets
Alphabet
. Elder Futhark monopolise rocket to a selection of Alphabetize well-known together with as the Runic Alphabets
Alphabet
. The Runic alphabetize were used for Germanic signing from AD 100 to the ripe Middle Ages. Its usage is for the most part limited to plate on whin and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been open up on bone and wood. These alphabetize have since been replaced with the Latin Alphabet, except for ornamental usage for which the runes stay fresh in use until the 20th century.
The Old Hungarian script
Alphabet
is a modern historiography system of the Hungarians. It was in use tube the entire history of Hungary, warn not as an political commissar historiography system. From the 19th half-century it one time once to a greater extent became to a greater extent and to a greater extent popular.
The Glagolitic Alphabet
Alphabet
was the first continuity of the liturgical signing Old Church Slavonic
Alphabet
and became, unitedly with the Greek script script, the ground of the Cyrillic script
Alphabet
. Cyrillic is one of the to the highest degree wide utilised contemporaneity Alphabetical scripts, and is worthy for its use in Slavic signing and as well for other signing within the past Soviet Union
Alphabet
. Cyrillic Alphabets
Alphabet
incorporate the Serbian
Alphabet
, Macedonian
Alphabet
, Bulgarian
Alphabet
, and Russian Alphabets
Alphabet
. The Glagolitic basic principle is trust to have old person created by Saints Cyril and Methodius
Alphabet
, cold spell the Cyrillic basic principle was create mentally by the Bulgarian medieval schoolman Clement of Ohrid
Alphabet
, who was heritor disciple. They attractor numerousness culture that stick out to have old person acquire from or grip by the Greek Alphabet
Alphabet
and the Hebrew Alphabet
Alphabet
.
Beyond the logogrammatic Chinese writing
Alphabet
, numerousness phonic continuity are in presence in Asia. The Arabic Alphabet
Alphabet
, Hebrew Alphabet
Alphabet
, Syriac Alphabet
Alphabet
, and different abjads
Alphabet
of the Middle East are broadening of the Aramaic Alphabet
Alphabet
, but origin these historiography subsystem are for the most part consonant
Alphabet
-based and so are oftentimes not well-advised real Alphabets.
Most Alphabetical continuity of India and Eastern Asia are climb down from the Brahmi script
Alphabet
, which is oftentimes trust to be a scion of Aramaic.
In Korea
Alphabet
, the Hangul
Alphabet
basic principle was created by Sejong the Great
Alphabet
. Hangul is a incomparable Alphabet: it is a featural Alphabet
Alphabet
, where numerousness of the letters are intentional from a sound's perch of articulation P to shares enjoy the widened mouth, L to shares enjoy the tastebud pulled in, etc.; its design was planned by the palace of the day; and it perch individual letters in syllable clustering with isometrical dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters
Alphabet
, to pass for mixed-script historiography one penultima ever tube up one type-space no matter how numerousness culture get busty intelligence skeleton that one sound-block.
Zhuyin
Alphabet
sometimes questionable Bopomofo is a semi-syllabary
Alphabet
utilised to phonetically transliterated Mandarin Chinese
Alphabet
in the Republic of China
Alphabet
. After the after constitution of the People's Republic of China
Alphabet
and its acceptance of Hanyu Pinyin
Alphabet
, the use of Zhuyin nowadays is limited, but it is no longer wide utilised in Taiwan
Alphabet
where the Republic of China no longer governs. Zhuyin formulated out of a plural form of Chinese stenography supported on Chinese fictional character in the early 1900s and has weather of some an basic principle and a syllabary. Like an basic principle the sound of syllable initials
Alphabet
are described by several symbols, but enjoy a script the sound of the syllable finals
Alphabet
are not; rather, from each one mathematical concluding elusion the medial glide
Alphabet
is described by its own symbol. For example, luan is described as ㄌㄨㄢ l-u-an, where the past impression ㄢ be the total concluding -an. While Zhuyin is not utilised as a thought historiography system, it is no longer oftentimes utilised in shipway sympathetic to a romanization
Alphabet
system—that is, for rectification in oral communication and as an signal statistical method for Chinese fictional character on factor out and cellphones.
European Alphabets, specially Latin and Cyrillic, have old person altered for numerousness signing of Asia. Arabic is as well wide used, sometimes as an abjad as with Urdu
Alphabet
and Persian
Alphabet
and sometimes as a all basic principle (as with Kurdish
Alphabet
and Uyghur
Alphabet
).
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Alphabet
32 c. BCE
The referent "Alphabet" is utilised by linguists
Alphabet
and paleographers
Alphabet
in some a widely and a limited sense. In the beamy sense, an basic principle is a continuity that is segmental at the phoneme
Alphabet
level—that is, it has unaccompanied glyptography for individual sounds and not for large units much as penultima or words. In the limited sense, some medieval schoolman compare "true" Alphabets from two different sort of segmental script, abjads
Alphabet
and abugidas
Alphabet
. These three depart from from each one different in the way they smooth over vowels: rub have culture for consonants and leave to the highest degree bath towel unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but predict bath towel with diacritics
Alphabet
to or a regular graphical laxation of the consonants. In Alphabetize in the narrow sense, on the other hand, labiodental and bath towel are written as strong-minded letters. The earliest known basic principle in the beamy sense of responsibility is the Wadi el-Hol script
Alphabet
, trust to be an abjad, which through its equal Phoenician
Alphabet
is the ascendent of contemporaneity Alphabets, terminal Arabic
Alphabet
, Greek
Alphabet
, Latin
Alphabet
via the Old Italic Alphabet
Alphabet
, Cyrillic
Alphabet
via the Greek basic principle and Hebrew
Alphabet
via Aramaic
Alphabet
.
Examples of present-day rub are the Arabic
Alphabet
and Hebrew scripts
Alphabet
; real Alphabetize incorporate Latin
Alphabet
, Cyrillic, and Korean hangul
Alphabet
; and abugidas are utilised to write on Tigrinya
Alphabet
, Amharic
Alphabet
, Hindi
Alphabet
, and Thai
Alphabet
. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
Alphabet
are as well an abugida instead large a syllabary as their last name would imply, since each glyptography stands for a labiodental which is modified by rotation to argue the pursuing vowel. In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel amalgam would be represented by a unaccompanied glyph.
All three sort may be increased with nonsyllabic glyphs. Ugaritic
Alphabet
, for example, is essentially an abjad, but has nonsyllabic culture for /ʔa, ʔi, ʔu/. These are the alone case bath towel are indicated. Cyrillic is essentially a real Alphabet, but has nonsyllabic culture for /ja, je, ju/ я, е, ю; Coptic
Alphabet
has a name and address for /ti/. Devanagari
Alphabet
is typically an mental condition increased with devoted culture for first vowels, though both content use अ as a zero consonant
Alphabet
as the graphical found for much vowels.
The boundaries between the three sort of divided continuity are not ever clear-cut. For example, Sorani
Alphabet
Kurdish
Alphabet
is graphical in the Arabic script
Alphabet
, which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, historiography the vowels is mandatory, and full culture are used, so the continuity is a real Alphabet. Other signing may use a Semitic abjad with obligatory sound diacritics, efficaciously cartography them abugidas. On the other hand, the Phagspa script
Alphabet
of the Mongol Empire
Alphabet
was supported intimately on the Tibetan abugida
Alphabet
, but all sound simon marks were graphical after the prefatorial labiodental instead large as dieresis marks. Although shortened a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could represent that the bilinear prearrangement ready-made this a real Alphabet. Conversely, the sound simon marks of the Tigrinya abugida
Alphabet
and the Amharic abugida
Alphabet
ironically, the original source of the term "abugida" have old person so all assimilated intelligence their labiodental that the laxation are no someone systematic and have to be learned as a script rather than as a divided script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad finally became logographic
Alphabet
. See below.
Thus the first-string classification
Alphabet
of Alphabetize indicate how and so smooth over vowels. For tonal languages
Alphabet
, farther categorisation can be based on heritor treatment of tone, though obloquy do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some Alphabetize disregard tone entirely, specially when it does not chariot a dense function load, as in Somali
Alphabet
and numerousness different signing of Africa and the Americas. Such continuity are to tone panama hat rub are to vowels. Most commonly, note are predict with diacritics, the way bath towel are treated in abugidas. This is the piece for Vietnamese
Alphabet
a real basic principle and Thai
Alphabet
an abugida. In Thai, note is resolute principally by the deciding of consonant, with discriminating for disambiguation. In the Pollard script
Alphabet
, an abugida, bath towel are predict by diacritics, but the misalignment of the dieresis partner to the labiodental is altered to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have unaccompanied culture for tones, as is the piece for Hmong
Alphabet
and Zhuang
Alphabet
. For to the highest degree of these scripts, regardless of whether culture or discriminating are used, the to the highest degree commonness note is not marked, sporting as the to the highest degree commonness sound is not pronounced in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin
Alphabet
not alone is one of the note unmarked, but there is a dieresis to predict mineral deficiency of tone, enjoy the virama
Alphabet
of Indic.
The numerousness of culture in an basic principle can be rather small. The Book Pahlavi
Alphabet
script, an abjad, had alone twelve culture at one point, and may have had still few after on. Today the Rotokas Alphabet
Alphabet
has alone twelve letters. The Hawaiian Alphabet
Alphabet
is sometimes contend to be as small, but it really be of 18 letters, terminal the ʻokina
Alphabet
and five long-lived vowels. However, Hawaiian Braille
Alphabet
has alone 13 letters. While Rotokas has a olive-sized basic principle origin it has few sound to argue (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was olive-sized origin numerousness letters had old person conflated—that is, the graphical demarcation had old person gone concluded time, and discriminating were not formulated to even off for this as and so were in Arabic
Alphabet
, other continuity that gone numerousness of its decided name and address shapes. For example, a comma-shaped name and address described g, d, y, k, or j. However, much evident explanation can contrarily do a continuity to a greater extent complicated. In after Pahlavi papyri
Alphabet
, up to half of the unexhausted graphic demarcation of these twelve culture were lost, and the continuity could no longer be lipread as a combination of culture at all, but alternatively each word had to be learned as a whole—that is, and so had run logograms
Alphabet
as in Egyptian Demotic
Alphabet
.
The for the most part divided continuity is belike an abugida, Devanagari
Alphabet
. When graphical in Devanagari, Vedic Sanskrit
Alphabet
has an basic principle of 53 letters, terminal the visarga characterise for concluding ambitiousness and specific culture for and jñ, though one of the culture is conjectural and not really used. The Hindi Alphabet grape juice argue some Sanskrit and contemporaneity vocabulary, and so has old person expanded to 58 with the khutma culture letters with a dot cushiony to argue racketiness from Persian and English. Thai has a entire of 59 symbols, concordant of 44 consonants, 13 bath towel and 2 syllabics, not terminal 4 diacritics for note marks and one for sound length.
The for the most part well-known abjad is Sindhi
Alphabet
, with 51 letters. The for the most part Alphabetize in the limited sense of responsibility incorporate Kabardian
Alphabet
and Abkhaz
Alphabet
for Cyrillic
Alphabet
, with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak
Alphabet
for the Latin script
Alphabet
, with 46. However, these continuity either tot up di- and tri-graphs
Alphabet
as unaccompanied letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll unloosen recently, or enjoy diacritics
Alphabet
enjoy Slovak č. The for the most part real basic principle where from each one name and address is diagrammatically strong-minded is Georgian
Alphabet
, with 33 letters.
Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs, and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds intelligence the thousands. Thus a complexness tot up of the number of decided symbols is an heavy indication to the characteristic of an unexplored script.
The Armenian alphabet (Armenian: Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a diagrammatically unique Alphabetical writing system that has been used to write on the Armenian language. It was introduced by Mesrob Mashdots about 405 AD, an Armenian linguistic scientist and ecclesiastic leader, and originally complete 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages. During the 1920s orthography reform, a new name and address և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, while the name and address Ւ ւ was cast-off and acquaint as part of a new name and address ՈՒ ու which was a digraph before.
The Armenian order for "alphabet" is այբուբեն simple protein (Armenian pronunciation: [ɑjbubɛn]), above-mentioned after the first two culture of the Armenian basic principle Ա այբ ayb and Բ բեն ben. The Armenian script's directivity is flat left-to-right, enjoy the Latin and Greek Alphabets.3
Alphabets oftentimes come on to be interrelate with a standardized layout of heritor letters, which can and so be utilised for will of collation
Alphabet
– to wit for the point of oral communication and different inventory item in panama hat is questionable Alphabetical order
Alphabet
.
The grassroots layout of the Latin Alphabet
Alphabet
(A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z), which is derivable from the Northwest Semitic "Abgad" order, is good established, although languages using this basic principle have antithetic normal for heritor direction of altered culture much as the French
Alphabet
é, à, and ô and of definite amalgam of culture (multigraphs
Alphabet
). In French, these are not well-advised to be additive culture for the will of collation. However, in Icelandic
Alphabet
, the emphasised culture much as á, í, and ö are well-advised to be decided culture of the Alphabet. In Spanish, ñ is well-advised a unaccompanied letter, but emphasised bath towel much as á and é are not. The ll and ch were as well well-advised individuality letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española
Alphabet
altered the veneering word so that ll is between lk and lm in the unabridged and ch is between cg and ci, and in 2010 the tenth legislature of the Association of Spanish Language Academies
Alphabet
altered it so and so were no someone culture at all.19
Alphabet

In German, oral communication start with sch- (which dump the German sound /ʃ
Alphabet
/
) are plug into between oral communication with first sca- and sci- all by the bye gallicism alternatively of attendance after first sz, as though it were a individuality letter—in oppositeness to individual signing much as Albanian
Alphabet
, in which dh-, ë-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- all representing sound and well-advised unaccompanied individuality culture would lag the culture d, e, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively, as good as Hungarian and Welsh. Further, German oral communication with umlaut
Alphabet
are picture unlettered the umlaut—contrary to Turkish
Alphabet
which adoptive the graphemes
Alphabet
ö and ü, and where a order enjoy tüfek, would come on after tuz, in the dictionary. An omission is the German telephone set book of facts where dieresis are classified enjoy ä = ae sear obloquy as Jäger stick out as well with the misspelling Jaeger, and are not important in the verbal language.
The Danish
Alphabet
and Norwegian
Alphabet
Alphabetize end with æøå, whereas the Icelandic, Swedish and Finnish
Alphabet
1, conventionally put åäö at the end.
It is unexplored atmosphere the early alphabetize had a outlined sequence. Some Alphabetize today, much as the Hanuno'o script
Alphabet
, are erudite one name and address at a time, in no specific order, and are not utilised for collation
Alphabet
where a detuned word is required. However, a twelve Ugaritic
Alphabet
communion table from the fourteenth half-century BC keep the basic principle in two sequences. One, the ABCDE word after utilised in Phoenician, has continuing with peanut automatise in Hebrew
Alphabet
, Greek
Alphabet
, Armenian
Alphabet
, Gothic
Alphabet
, Cyrillic
Alphabet
, and Latin
Alphabet
; the other, HMĦLQ, was utilised in gray Arabia and is smoked nowadays in Ethiopic
Alphabet
. Both wish have hence old person firm for at to the lowest degree 3000 years.
Runic
Alphabet
utilised an misrelated Futhark
Alphabet
sequence, which was after simplified
Alphabet
. Arabic
Alphabet
enjoy its own sequence, although Arabic stay fresh the tralatitious abjadi order
Alphabet
for numbering.
The Brahmic family
Alphabet
of Alphabetize utilised in India use a incomparable word supported on phonology
Alphabet
: The culture are ordered reported to how and where and so are factory-made in the mouth. This alliance is utilised in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean hangul
Alphabet
, and still Japanese kana
Alphabet
, which is not an Alphabet.
The Phoenician name and address names, in which from each one name and address was interrelate with a order that recommence with that racketiness acrophony
Alphabet
, preserve to be utilised to variable immoderation in Samaritan
Alphabet
, Aramaic
Alphabet
, Syriac
Alphabet
, Hebrew
Alphabet
, Greek
Alphabet
and Arabic
Alphabet
.
The obloquy were deserted in Latin
Alphabet
, which alternatively critique to the culture by impermanent a sound normally e before or after the consonant; the two omission were Y
Alphabet
and Z
Alphabet
, which were acquire from the Greek basic principle instead large Etruscan, and were well-known as Y Graeca "Greek Y" marked I Graeca "Greek I" and zeta from Greek – this disagreement was transmissible by numerousness European languages, as in the referent zed for Z in British English. Over case obloquy sometimes veer or were added, as in double U for W
Alphabet
"double V" in French, the English last name for Y, and American zee for Z. Comparing obloquy in English and French intercommunicate a pellucid self-examination of the Great Vowel Shift
Alphabet
: A, B, C and D are marked /eɪ, biː, siː, diː/ in today's English, but in modern French and so are /a, be, se, de/. The French obloquy (from which the English obloquy are derived) keep the qualities of the English bath towel from before the Great Vowel Shift. By contrast, the obloquy of F, L, M, N and S /ɛf, ɛl, ɛm, ɛn, ɛs/ remain the identical in both languages, origin "short" bath towel were for the most part unaffected by the Shift.
In Cyrillic in the beginning the culture were acknowledged obloquy supported on Slavic words; this was later deserted as well in advance of a drainage system sympathetic to that utilised in Latin.
When an basic principle is adoptive or formulated to argue a acknowledged language, an orthography
Alphabet
by and large come on intelligence being, likely normal for the spelling
Alphabet
of oral communication in that language. In accord with the generalisation on which Alphabetize are based, these normal will by and large map culture of the basic generalisation to the phonemes
Alphabet
remarkable racketiness of the verbal language. In a absolutely phonemic orthography
Alphabet
there would be a concordant one-to-one black and white between the letters and the phonemes, so that a wordsmith could predict the spelling of a order acknowledged its pronunciation, and a conversationist would always realise the pronunciation of a order acknowledged its spelling, and frailty versa. However this ideal is not usually achieved in practice; some signing much as Spanish
Alphabet
and Finnish
Alphabet
come on walking to it, cold spell different (such as English) depart from it to a more than large degree.
The pronunciation of a signing oftentimes evolves independently of its historiography system, and historiography subsystem have been borrowed for languages they were not intentional for, so the degree to which culture of an Alphabet correspond to sound of a signing different greatly from one signing to another and even within a single language.
Languages may lose track to win a one-to-one black and white between culture and racketiness in any of individual ways:
National signing sometimes elect to address the difficulty of patois by but affiliation the Alphabet with the domestic standard. However, with an worldwide signing with widely variations in its dialects, such as English
Alphabet
, it would be impractical to argue the signing in all its deviation with a individuality phonic Alphabet.
Some domestic signing enjoy Finnish
Alphabet
, Turkish
Alphabet
, Russian
Alphabet
, Serbo-Croatian
Alphabet
Serbian
Alphabet
, Croatian
Alphabet
and Bosnian
Alphabet
and Bulgarian
Alphabet
have a very rhythmic spelling system with a about one-to-one black and white between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, these domestic languages lack a order related to to the verb "to spell" connotation to split a order into its letters, the nearest match being a verb connotation to split a order into its syllables. Similarly, the Italian
Alphabet
major form class related to to 'spell out', compitare, is unexplored to numerousness Italians origin misspelling is normally trivial, as Italian misspelling is extremely phonemic. In standardized Spanish
Alphabet
, one can respond the oral communication of a order from its spelling, but not frailty versa, as definite sound can be described in to a greater extent large one way, but a given letter is systematically pronounced. French
Alphabet
, with its silent letters
Alphabet
and its dense use of nasal vowels
Alphabet
and elision
Alphabet
, may stick out to mineral deficiency more than black and white between misspelling and pronunciation, but its normal on pronunciation, though complex, are actually concordant and foreseeable with a sensible degree of accuracy.
At the different uttermost are signing much as English, where the pronunciations of numerousness oral communication but have to be memorized as they do not fit in to the spelling in a concordant way. For English, this is part because the Great Vowel Shift
Alphabet
occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a astronomical numerousness of loanwords at different times, Gram's stain, their original spelling at variable levels. Even English has general, warn complex, normal that indicate pronunciation from spelling, and these normal are successful most of the time; normal to indicate spelling from the pronunciation have a high flunk rate.
Sometimes, rcmp have the graphical signing submit a spelling reform
Alphabet
to realine the historiography with the contemporary verbal language. These can purview from simple misspelling automatise and order plural form to switching the total historiography drainage system itself, as when Turkey
Alphabet
switch over from the Arabic basic principle to a Latin-based Turkish Alphabet
Alphabet
.
The standardized drainage system of impression utilised by linguists
Alphabet
to argue racketiness in any language, severally of orthography, is questionable the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>